Cachessia neoplastica e integrazione alimentare


  1. Doyle C, Kushi LH, Byers T,  et al. Nutrition and physical activity during and after cancer treatment: an American cancer society guide for informed choices. CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2006; vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 323–353.
  2. Laviano A, Meguid MM, Inui A, Muscaritoli M, Rossi-Fanelli F. Therapy insight: cancer anorexia–cachexia syndrome – when all you can eat is yourself. Nature Clinical Practice Oncology 2005;2:158–65.
  3. Cherny NI and Catane R. Attitudes of medical oncologists toward palliative care for patients with advanced and incurable cancer: report on a survey by the European Society of Medical Oncology Taskforce on Palliative and Supportive Care. Cancer 2003; 98: 2502–2510.
  4. Spiro A, Baldwin C, Patterson A, et al. The views and practiceof oncologists towards nutritional support in patients receivingchemotherapy. British Journal of Cancer 2006;95:431–4.
  5. Ambrus JL, Ambrus CM, Mink IB, Pickren JW. Causes of death incancer patients. Journal of Medicine 1975;6(1):61–4.
  6. Inagaki J, Rodriguez V, Bodey GP. Proccedings: causes of death incancer patients. Cancer 1974;33(2):568–73.
  7. Klastersky J, Daneau D, Verhest A. Causes of death in patients withcancer. European Journal of Cancer 1972;8(2):149–54.
  8. Warren S. The immediate causes of death in cancer. American Journalof the Medical Sciences 1932;184:610–5.
  9. Fearon KC, Voss AC, Hustead DS. Definition of cancer cachexia: effect of weight loss, reduced food intake, and systemic inflammation on functional status and prognosis. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83(6): 1345–50.
  10. Evans WJ, Morley JE, Argilés J, et al. Cachexia: a new definition. Clin Nutr 2008;27(6): 793–9.
  11. Gullett N, Rossi P, Kucuk O, Johnstone PA. Cancer-induced cachexia: a guide for the oncologist. J Soc Integr Oncol 2009;7(4): 155–69.
  12. Lieffers JR, Mourtzakis M, Hall KD, McCargar LJ, Prado CM, Bracos VE. A viscerally driven cachexia syndrome in patients with advanced colorectal cancer: contributions of organ and tumor mass to whole-body energy demands. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89(4): 1173–9.
  13. Rolland Y, Abellan Van Kana G, Gillette-Guyonnet S, Vellas B. Cachexia versus sarcopenia. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 2011;14:15–21.
  14. Hall DT, Ma JF, Marco SD, Gallouzi IE. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in muscle wasting syndrome, sarcopenia, and cachexia. Aging 2011;3(8):702–15.
  15. Staal-van den Brekel AJ, Schols AM, Dentener MA, ten Velde GP,Buurman WA, Wouters EF. The effects of treatment with chemother-apy on energy metabolism and inflammatory mediators in small-celllung carcinoma. British Journal of Cancer 1997;76(12):1630–5.
  16. Argilés JM,Moore-Carrasco R, Fuster G, Busquets S, and Lòpez-Soriano F J. Cancer cachexia: the molecular mechanisms. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 2003; vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 405–409.
  17. Donohoe CL, Ryan AM, Reynolds JV. Cancer cachexia: mechanisms and clinical implications. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2011;2011:601434.
  18. Hopkins SJ, Rothwell NJ. Cytokines and the nervous system. I: expression and recognition. Trends Neurosci 1995;18:83–8.
  19. Moldawer LL, Rogy MA, Lowry SF. The role of cytokines in cancer cachexia. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1992;16:43S–9S.
  20. Noguchi Y, Yoshikawa T, Matsumoto A, Svaninger GS, Gelin J. Are cytokines possible mediators of cancer cachexia? Surg Today 1996;26:467–75.
  21. Matthys P, Billiau A. Cytokines and cachexia. Nutrition 1997;13: 763–70.
  22. Doehner W, von Haehling S, Anker SD, Lainscak M. Neurohormonal activation and inflammation in chronic cardiopulmonary disease: a brief systematic review. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 2009;121:293–6.
  23. Doehner W, Haeusler KG, Endres M, Anker SD, Macnee W, Lainscak M. Neurological and endocrinological disorders: orphans in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiratory Medicine 2011;105(Suppl (1)):S12–9.
  24. Lainscak M, Gosker HR, Schols AMWJ. COPD patient journey: hospitalisations as window of opportunity for extra-pulmonary interventions. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 2013.
  25. von Haehling S, Anker SD. Cachexia as a major underestimated and unmet medical need: facts and numbers. Journal of Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2010;1:1–5.
  26. Stratton RJ, Green CJ, Elia M. Disease-related malnutrition: anevidence-based approach. CAB International 2003.
  27. Bozzetti F et al. (1999) Artificial nutrition in cancer patients: which route, what composition? World J Surg 23: 577–583.
  28. Inui A. Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome: current issues in research and management. CA Cancer J Clin. 2002;52:72-91.
  29. Kotler DP. Cachexia. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133:622-34.
  30. Skipworth RJE, Stewart GD, Dejong C. HC, Preston T, Fearon KCH. Pathophysiology of cancer cachexia: much more than host-tumour interaction?. Clinical Nutrition 2007; vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 667–676.
  31. Tisdale MJ, Cachexia in cancer patients. Nature Reviews Cancer 2002; vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 862–871.
  32. Reeds PJ, Fjeld CR, Jahoor F. Do the differences between the amino acid compositions of acute-phase and muscle proteins have a bearing on nitrogen loss in traumatic states?. Journal of Nutrition 1994, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 906–910.
  33. Moses AW, Slater C, Preston T, Barber MD, Fearon KC. Reducedtotal energy expenditure and physical activity in cachectic patientswith pancreatic cancer can be modulated by an energy and proteindense oral supplement enriched with n-3 fatty acids. British Journalof Cancer 2004;90(5):996–1002.
  34. Gibney E, Elia M, Jebb SA, Murgatroyd P, Jennings G. Total energyexpenditure in patients with small-cell lung cancer: results of a vali-dated study using the bicarbonate-urea method. Metabolism: Clinicaland Experimental 1997;46(12):1412–7.
  35. Lenk K, Schuler G, Adams V. Skeletal muscle wasting in cachexia and sarcopenia: molecular pathophysiology and impact of exercise training. J Cachex Sarcopenia Muscle 2010;1:9–21.
  36. Williams A, Sun X, Fischer J. The expression of genes in the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway is increased in skeletal muscle from patients with cancer. Surgery 1999;126:744–9.
  37. Llovera M, Garcia-Martinez C, Lopez-Soriano J, et al. Role of TNF receptor 1 in protein turnover during cancer cachexia using gene knockout mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol 1998;142:183–9.
  38. Guttridge D. Molecular mechanisms of muscle wasting in cancer cahexia. Nutr Support Cancer 2006;1–13.
  39. Lum JJ, DeBerardinis RJ, Thompson CB. Autophagy in metazoans: cell survival in the land of plenty. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2005;6:439–48.
  40. Bossola M, Muscaritoli M, Costelli P, Grieco G, Bonelli G, Pacelli F, Rossi Fanelli F, Doglietto GB, Baccino FM. Increaded Muscle Proteasome Activity Correlates with Disease Severity in Gastric Cancer Patients. Ann. Surg. 2003; Vol 237, No. 3, 384-389. 
  41. Evans WJ, Morley JE, Argiles JM, Bales C, Baracos V, Guttridge D, et al. Cachexia: a new definition. Clinical Nutrition 2008;27:793–9.
  42. Fearon KC, Voss AC, Hustead DS. for the Cancer CachexiaStudy Group, Definition of cancer cachexia: effect on weight loss,reduced food intake, and systemic inflammation on functional sta-tus and prognosis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83:1345–50.
  43. Geels P et al. (2000) Palliative effect of chemotherapy: objective tumor response is associated with symptom improvement in patients with metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 18: 2395–2405.
  44. Arrieta O, Michel Ortega RM, Villanueva-Rodríguez G, et al. Associ-ation of nutritional status and serum albumin levels with developmentof toxicity in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer treatedwith paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy: a prospective study. BMCCancer 2010;10(February):50
  45. Prado CM, Baracos V, McCargar LJ, et al. Body composition as anindependent determinant of 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy tox-icity. Clinical Cancer Research 2007;13(11):3264–8.
  46. Prado CM, Baracos VE, McCargar LJ, et al. Sarcopenia as a deter-minant of chemotherapy toxicity and time to tumor progression inmetastatic breast cancer patients receiving capecitabine treatment.Clinical Cancer Research 2009;15(April (8)):2920–6.
  47. Prado CM, Lieffers JR, McCargar LJ, et al. Prevalence and clinical implications of sarcopenic obesity in patients with solid tumours of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts: a population-based study. Lancet Oncol 2008;9(7): 629–35.
  48. Martín F, Santolaria F, Batista N, Milena A, González-Reimers E, Brito MJ, et al. Cytokine levels (IL-6 and IFN-gamma), acute phase response and nutritional status as prognostic factors in lung cancer. Cytokine 1999;11:80–6.
  49. Penner CG, Gang G, Wray C, Fischer JE, Hasselgren PO. The transcription factors NF- B and AP-1 are differentially regulated in skeletal muscle during sepsis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2001;281:1331–6.
  50. von Haehling S, Doehner W, Anker SD. Nutrition, metabolism, and the complex pathophysiology of cachexia in chronic heart failure. Cardiovascular Research 2007;73(2):298–309.
  51. Baracos VE. Cancer-associated cachexia and underlying biological mechanisms. Annual Review of Nutrition 2006;26:435–61.
  52. Costelli P, Reffo P, Penna F, Autelli R, Bonelli G, Baccino FM. Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in muscle wasting. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 2005;37(10):2134–46.
  53. Reed SA, Sandesara PB, Senf SM, Judge AR. Inhibition of FoxO transcriptional activity prevents muscle fiber atrophy during cachexia and induces hypertrophy. FASEB Journal 2011;26:1–14.
  54. Glass DJ. Signalling pathways that mediate skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. Nature Cell Biology 2003;5:87–90.
  55. Ebner N, Springer J, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Lainscak M, Doehner W, Anker SD, von Haehling S. Mechanism and novel therapeutic approaches to wasting in chronic disease. Maturitas. 2013 Jul;75(3):199-206.
  56. Inui A. Cancer anorexia–cachexia syndrome: are neuropeptides the key? Cancer Res 1999;59:4493–501.
  57. Friedman JM, Halaas JL. Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals. Nature 1998;395:763–70.
  58. Flier JS, Maratos-Flier E. Obesity and the hypothalamus: novel peptides for new pathways. Cell 1998;92:437–40.
  59. Schwartz MW, Figlewicz DP, Baskin DG, Woods SC, Porte D. Insulin in the brain: a hormonal regulator of energy balance. Endocr Rev 1992;13:387–414.
  60. Sarraf P, Frederich RC, Turner EM, Ma G, Jaskowiak NT, Rivet III DJ, et al. Multiple cytokines and acute inflammation raise mouse leptin levels: potential role in inflammatory anorexia. Journal of Emergency Medical Services 1997;185(1):171–6.
  61. Sato T, Laviano A, Meguid MM, Rossi-Fanelli F. Plasma leptin, insulin and free tryptophan contribute to cytokine-induced anorexia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;527:233–9.
  62. Ramos EJ, Suzuki S, Marks D, Inui A, Asakawa A, Meguid MM. Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome: cytokines and neuropeptides. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2004;7:427–34.
  63. Inui A et al. (2004) Ghrelin, appetite, and gastric motility: the emerging role of the stomach as an endocrine organ. FASEB J 18: 439–456.
  64. Akamizu T, Kangawa K. Ghrelin for cachexia. Journal of Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2010;1(2):169–76.
  65. Wang W, Danielsson A, Svanberg E, Lundholm K. Lack of effects by tricyclic antidepressant and serotonin inhibitors on anorexia in MCG 101 tumor-bearing mice with eicosanoid-related cachexia. Nutrition 2003;19:47–53.
  66. Makarenko IG, Meguid MM, Gatto L, et al. Hypothalamic 5-HT1B-receptor changes in anorectic tumor bearing rats. Neurosci Lett 2005;376:71–5.
  67. Laviano A, Meguid MM, Inui A, Muscaritoli M, Rossi-Fanelli F. Cancer anorexia: clinical implications, pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies. Lancet Oncol 2003; 4: 686-94.
  68. Cangiano C, Laviano A, Meguid MM, Mulieri M, Conversano L, Preziosa I, Rossi-Fanelli F. Effects of administration of oral branched-chain amino acids on anorexia and caloric intake in cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996 Apr 17;88(8):550-2.
  69. Diksic M and Young SN (2001) Study of the brain serotonergic system with labelled a-methyl-Ltryptophan. J Neurochem 78: 1185–1200.
  70. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS: New functions for amino acids: effects on gene transcription and translation. Am J Clin Nutr 2006, 83:500S–507S.
  71. Anthony JC, Anthony TG, Kimball SR, Vary TC, Jefferson LS: Orally administered leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of postabsorptive rats in association with increased eIF4F formation. J Nutr 2000, 130:139–145.
  72. Anthony JC, Yoshizawa F, Anthony TG, Vary TC, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR: Leucine stimulates translation initiation in skeletal muscle of postabsorptive rats via a rapamycin-sensitive pathway. J Nutr 2000, 130:2413–2419.
  73. Norton L, Layman D, Garlick P: Isonitrogenous protein sources with different leucine contents differentially effect translation initiation and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. FASEB J 2008, 22:869–875.
  74. Norton L, Layman D, Bunpo P, Anthony T, Brana D, Garlick P: The Leucine content of complete meal directs peak activation but not duration of skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in rats. J Nutr 2009, 139(6):1103–1109.
  75. Dreyer H, Drummond, Pennings B, Fujita S, Glynn E, Chinkes D, Dhanani S, Volpi E, Rasmussen B: Leucine-enriched essential amino acid and carbohydrate ingestion following resistance exercise enhances mTOR signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2008, 294:E392–E400.
  76. Stark M, Lukaszuk J, Prawitz A, Salacinski A. Protein timing and its effects on muscular hypertrophy and strength in individuals engaged in weight-training. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Dec 14;9(1):54.
  77. Jatoi A, Loprinzi CL. Clinical features and pathogenesis of cancer cachexia. In: Rose BD, Rush JM, eds. UpToDate CD room, 18.1 ed, Wallesley, MA. 2010.
  78. Poon RT, Yu WC, Fan ST, Wong J. Long-term oral branched chainamino acids in patients undergoing chemoembolization for hepatocel-lular carcinoma: a randomized trial. Alimentary Pharmacology andTherapeutics 2004;19(April (7)):779–88.
  79. Hiroshige K1, Sonta T, Suda T, Kanegae K, Ohtani A. Oral supplementation of branched-chain amino acid improves nutritional status in elderly patients on chronic haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001 Sep;16(9):1856-62.
  80. Bozzetti F, Bozzetti V. Is the intravenous administration of amino acidadequate in cancer patients? A critical appraisal of literature. ClinicalNutrition, in press.
  81. Kuhn KS, Muscaritoli M, Wischmeyer P, Stehle P. Glutamineas indispensable nutrient in oncology: experimental and clini-cal evidence. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;49:197–210.
  82. May PE, Barber A, D’Olimpio JT, Hourihane A, Abumrad NN. Reversal of cancer-related wasting using oral supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and glutamine. Am J Surg. 2002;183(4):471–479.
  83. Argiles JM, Olivan M, Busquets S, et al. Optimal management of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Cancer Management and Research. 2010;2:27-38.
  84. Stechmiller JK, Childress B, Porter T. Arginine immunonutrition incritically ill patients: a clinical dilemma. American Journal of CriticalCare 2004;13(January (1)):17–23.
  85. Rodriguez PC, Quiceno DG, Ochoa AC. L-arginine availability regu-lates T-lymphocyte cell-cycle progression. Blood 2007;109(February(4)):1568–73.
  86. Loi C, Zazzo JF, Delpierre E, et al. Increasing plasma glutamine in postoperative patients fed an arginine-rich immune-enhancing diet— a pharmacokinetic randomized controlled study. Crit Care Med 2009;37: 501–9.
  87. Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/ omega-3 essential fatty acids, Biomed. Pharmacother. 2002; 56: 365–379.
  88. Kobayashi N, Barnard RJ, Henning SM, Elashoff D, Reddy ST, Cohen P, Leung P, Hong-Gonzalez J, Freedland SJ, Said J, et al., Effect of altering dietary omega-6/ omega-3 fatty acid ratios on prostate cancer membrane composition, cyclooxygenase-2, and prostaglandin E2, Clin. Cancer Res. 2006; 12:4662–4670.
  89. Sun H, Berquin IM, Owens RT, O’Flaherty JT, Edwards IJ. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma–mediated up-regulation of syndecan-1 by n-3 fatty acids promotes apoptosis of human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2008; 68: 2912–2919.
  90. Park Y, Harris WS. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation accelerates chylomicron triglyceride clearance. J. Lipid Res. 2003; 44: 455–463.
  91. Edwards IJ, Berquin IM, Sun H, O’Flaherty JT, Daniel LW, Thomas MJ, Rudel LL, Wykle RL, Chen YQ. Differential effects of delivery of omega-3 fatty acids to human cancer cells by low-density lipoproteins versus albumin. Clin. Cancer Res. 2004; 10: 8275–8283.
  92. Berger A, Roberts MA, Hoff B. How dietary arachidonic- and docosahexaenoic-acid rich oils differentially affect the murine hepatic transcriptome. Lipids Health Dis. 2006; 5: 10.
  93. Fritsche K. Fatty acids as modulators of the immune response. Annual Review of Nutrition 2006; vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 45– 73.
  94.  Berquin IM, Edwards IJ, Chen YQ. Multi-targeted therapy of cancer by omega-3 fatty acids. Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 8;269(2):363-77. 
  95. Colomer R, Moreno-Nogueira JM, García-Luna PP, et al. N-3 fattyacids, cancer and cachexia: a systematic review of the literature.British Journal of Nutrition 2007;97(May (5)):823–31.
  96. Dewey A, Baughan C, Dean T, Higgins B, Johnson I. Eicosapen-taenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3-fatty acid from fish oils) for thetreatment of cancer cachexia (Cochrane Review). In: The CochraneLibrary, Issue 2, 2007, Oxford: Update Software.
  97. Mazzotta P, Jeney CM. Anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a system-atic review of the role of dietary polyunsaturated Fatty acidsin the management of symptoms, survival, and quality of life.Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 2009;37(June (6)):1069–77.
  98. van der Meij BS, van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren MA, Langius JA.n-3 PUFAs in cancer, surgery, and critical care: a systematic reviewon clinical effects, incorporation, and washout of oral or enteral com-pared with parenteral supplementation. American Journal of ClinicalNutrition 2011;94(November (5)):1248–65.
  99. Ries A, Trottenberg P, Elsner F, et al. A systematic review onthe role of fish oil for the treatment of cachexia in advanced can-cer: an EPCRC cachexia guidelines project. Palliative Medicine2012;26(June (4)):294–304.
  100. August DA, Huhmann MB. American Society for Parenteral andEnteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Board of Directors A.S.P.E.N. clinicalguidelines: nutrition support therapy during adult anticancer treatmentand in hematopoietic cell transplantation. JPEN Journal of Parenteraland Enteral Nutrition 2009;33(September–October (5)):472–500.
  101. Bougnoux P, Chajès V, Germain E, et al. Cytotoxic drug efficacycorrelates with adipose tissue docosahexaenoic acid level in locallyadvanced breast carcinoma. Lipids 1999;34(Suppl.):S109.
  102. Murphy RA, Mourtzakis M, Chu QS, Baracos VE, Reiman T,Mazurak VC. Supplementation with fish oil increases first-linechemotherapy efficacy in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lungcancer. Cancer 2011;(February).
  103. Murphy RA, Mourtzakis M, Chu QS, Baracos VE, Reiman T, Mazu-rak VC. Nutritional intervention with fish oil provides a benefit overstandard of care for weight and skeletal muscle mass in patientswith nonsmall cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy. Cancer2011;(February).
  104. Bayram I, Erbey F, Celik N, Nelson JL, Tanyeli A. The use of aprotein and energy dense icosapentaenoic acid containing supplementfor malignancy-related weight loss in children. Pediatric Blood &Cancer 2009;52(5):571–4.
  105. Deutz NE, Safar A, Schutzler S, et al. Muscle protein synthesis incancer patients can be stimulated with a specially formulated medicalfood. Clinical Nutrition 2011;30(December (6)):759–68.
  106. Mantovani G, Macciò A, Madeddu C, Serpe R, Massa E, Dessì M, et al. Randomized phase III clinical trial of five different arms of treatment in 332 patients with cancer cachexia. Oncologist. 2010;15(2):200–11.
  107. Colomer R, Moreno-Nogueira JM, García-Luna PP, García-Peris P, García-de-Lorenzo A, Zarazaga A, Quecedo L, del Llano J, Usán L, Casimiro C. N-3 fatty acids, cancer and cachexia: a systematic review of the literature. Br J Nutr. 2007 May;97(5):823-31.
  108. Rasmussen BB, Holmback UC, Volpi E, et al. Malonyl coenzyme A and the regulation of functional carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity and fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle. J Clin Invest 2002; 110: 1687–93.
  109. Loftus TM, Jaworsky DE, Frehywot GL, et al. Reduced food intake and body weight in mice treated with fatty acid synthase inhibitors. Science 2000; 288: 2379–81.
  110. Tisdale MJ. Cancer cachexia. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2010; vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 146–151.
  111. Roubenoff R. Sarcopenic obesity: the confluence of two epidemics. Obes Res 2004;12(6):887–8.
  112. Gramignano G, Lusso MR, Madeddu C, Massa E, Serpe R, Deiana L, et al. Efficacy of l-carnitine administration on fatigue, nutritional status, oxidative stress, and related quality of life in 12 advanced cancer patients undergoing anticancer therapy. Nutrition 2006;22:136–45. 
  113. Silverio R, Laviano A, Fanelli FR, Seelaender M. l-carnitine and cancer cachexia: clinical and experimental aspects. Journal of Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2011;2(1):37.
  114. Mantovani G, Maccio A, Madeddu C, Serpe R, Massa E, Dessi M, et al. Randomized phase III clinical trial of five different arms of treatment in 332 patients with cancer cachexia. Oncologist 2010;15(2):200–11.
  115. Loprinzi CL, Schaid DJ, Dose AM, Burnham NL, Jensen MD. Body-composition changes in patients who gain weight while receiving megestrol acetate. Journal of Clinical Oncology 1993;11:152–4.
  116. Gavazzi C, Colatruglio S, Sironi A, Mazzaferro V, Miceli R. Importance of early nutritional screening in patients with gastric cancer. Br J Nutr. 2011 Dec;106(12):1773–8.
  117. Isenring EA, Capra S, Bauer JD. Nutrition intervention is beneficial in oncology outpatients receiving radiotherapy to the gastrointestinal or head and neck area. Br J Cancer. 2004 Aug;91(3):447–52.
  118. Ravasco P, Monteiro-Grillo I, Vidal PM, Camilo ME. Dietary counseling improves patient outcomes: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial in colorectal cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Mar;23(7):1431–8.
« 1 2 3


Ultima modifica dell'articolo: 29/07/2016


Dermatite polimorfa solare: che cos’è?Bambini: precauzioni al soleLentiggini ed efelidi: quali differenze?Lampade abbronzanti e tumori cutaneiMelanoma NON cutaneoOrticaria solare: che cos’è?Scottature solari: qualche consiglioOrticaria acuta: cosa fare quando si manifestaOrticaria: perché si chiama così?Orticaria: può essere provocata dall’attività fisica?Orticaria da freddo: caratteristicheOrticaria acquagenica: che cos’è?Tomografia a coerenza ottica“Voglie” in gravidanza: quali sono le cause?Quali sono le zone più dolorose da tatuare?Rimozione di un tatuaggio: fattori da considerareTatuaggi: come si rimuovono?Brachiterapia: domande frequentiStoria della brachiterapiaCorpi estranei nell’occhio: cosa fareTatuaggi all’henné e reazione allergicaLe curiose origini dell’iridologiaIridologia: che cos’è?Il caldo fa diventare aggressivi?Tatuaggi e salute della pelleQuando nasce l’usanza dei tatuaggi?La storia dello shampooCapelli fragili: qualche consiglioCosa indebolisce i capelli?Mal di testa e rapporti sessualiDiario del mal di testa: come va compilatoCefalea a grappolo: le persone più colpiteMal di testa e digiunoMal di testa e consumo di alcoliciMallo di Noce e InchiostroNoci: Altri UsiNoci: Produzione e StoccaggioTipi di NoceCelebrità con il morbo di ParkinsonDemenza a corpi di Lewy: alcune notizie storicheDemenza frontotemporale: alcune notizie storicheParkinson e atrofia multi sistemica: come distinguerli?Sinucleinopatie: che cosa sono?Atrofia multi sistemica: classificazioneSegno di BlumbergNoci in salamoiaGnocchi SpatzleGnocchi e PatateGnocco FrittoTipi di GnocchiGnocchi e StoriaMal di testa nella terza etàMal di testa e sbalzi climaticiSindrome da vomito ciclicoEmicrania addominaleOdori e rumori: causano mal di testa?Mal di testa da aereo: come si manifestaMal di testa da aereo: causeIl computer causa mal di testa?Mal di testa da gelato: come evitarlo